History and Prospects of the Bronze Lamps
Chandelier or ceiling lamp, wall lamp, table lamp or desk lamp … All this can be called in one word – lamp. We combine the above concepts for ease of reading material under one common word “lamp”. And let’s see, when appeared first lamps, what stages of development were household fixtures, what materials are used in the manufacture of lamps before and what materials are used in the manufacture of lamps and chandeliers for the home now?
History of chandeliers, and more precisely lamps, goes back centuries. The first literary mention of the lamp can be found in Homer’s Odyssey.
Development of the forms of lighting depends on the materials that were available in a particular era, and from the architectural tastes of the time, and on the technology of artificial lighting, which were utilized at that time. Light sources in ancient times could serve as torch, torches, lamps oily. Fixtures mostly made of clay, more rarely, of bronze and were a vessel with oil and a wick, which had to be set on fire.
Even in ancient times lamps are widely used as a necessary household items. Widely used in the homes of townspeople and villagers, lamps were not only subject to life and goods of those times, they also were the subject of art. His seat in the house and its purpose lamps were in ancient times, and it has not changed for centuries. Slip on forged tripod that is the current floor lamp, the lamp with oil or candles with candlestick that is the current table lamp. In the past, chandeliers called: hanging from the ceiling, wooden frames with a few greasy lamps, or simple wagon wheel with candles.
The basic structure of home lighting fixtures and types have come to us from that era, when it is widely used candles. But it should be noted that with the advent of new lighting technologies emerge and new types of lamps. Try to find analogues of spotlights in the days of kerosene lamps or candles – is unlikely you will succeed. The invention of fluorescent lighting led to the indirect lighting of surfaces in the house, recessed lighting for suspended ceilings, industrial lamps of various shapes and sizes.
Era is replaced by the era, people learn to handle metals, pouring bronze into everyday objects include bronze lamps and chandeliers – the massive desk lamps, oily Flow pendants on chains with wicks, as light sources. The initial widespread richly decorated bronze chandeliers and lamps can be attributed to the times of ancient Greece, Rome and Etruria. That’s when there were first lamps and chandeliers made of bronze, richly decorated with images of gods, animals, chandeliers and lamps with geometrical ornaments and ornaments from plants. Design and decor of these chandeliers, and formed the basis of the classical style, where chandeliers were made for many centuries. Classic style chandelier is alive to this day, you can easily find in stores chandeliers its appearance similar to candle chandeliers of palaces of Louis or oily suspensions of Ancient Rome, now.
As the foundry business appear chandeliers made of copper, silver, chandeliers made of bronze plated with gold. The people of one era alongside chandeliers made of nonferrous metals, crystal and glass in use can be found forged chandeliers and lamps, carved wooden stand for candles, earthen lamps and candlesticks. Income level, the image of a person’s life is strongly influenced by and influences to this day, those furnishings and appliances that surround it.
It is generally accepted that the classic elegant chandelier should be made of bronze. This misconception has come to us from the time of cultural prosperity of Europe, when the main styles and trends in architecture, the time of luxury and wealth of European nobility. In the houses of wealthy people and noble persons becoming more common chandeliers and lamps of bronze in the late XVIII and early XIX centuries. Chandeliers and lamps of bronze displace, chandeliers and lamps made of other materials, including lights made of glass. Bronze those times – an alloy of copper and tin, a material having a low shrinkage during molding, responds well to treatment. On the appearance bronze like gold, until the bronze oxide film.
Currently, classic chandeliers are made of aluminum, brass, with the processing of gold-plated, antique bronze, silver. Why are these materials are replaced bronze? Cost of bronze as a material for artistic casting a lot more than the cost of brass, and, of course, the aluminum alloys. Membership in the bronze alloy of tin, greatly increases the cost of the alloy. Closest to the bronze in composition and physical properties of the alloy – it is brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, sometimes with the addition of tin, nickel, iron, lead, manganese and other elements. Currently, tin bronze is almost never used in the manufacture of chandeliers and lamps, alloy bronze replaced brass alloy.
When processing brass profitable ahead of bronze, by their physical characteristics, while remaining outwardly similar to the bronze. Brass lamp, not lacquered, when exposed to the atmosphere darkens as well as bronze. Brass perfectly amenable to polishing that after the application of varnish making it indistinguishable from gold. Oxide covering the brass when exposed to the atmosphere protects it from further destruction, as well as oxide in bronze. Brass has a lower cost than alloy bronze, which certainly distinguishes it. Brass alloys are widely applied in industry in various sectors and for different purposes. Brass was first obtained in England in the late XVIII century, by melting copper with zinc metal. For a long time, after the invention of brass in Europe, brass was used as the fraudsters fake gold.
When processing brass profitable ahead of bronze, by their physical characteristics, while remaining outwardly similar to the bronze. When exposed to air, brass, which is not lacquered, dark as well as bronze. Brass perfectly amenable to polishing that after the application of varnish making it indistinguishable from gold. Oxide covering the brass when exposed to the atmosphere protects it from further destruction, as well as oxide in bronze. Brass has a lower cost than alloy bronze, which certainly distinguishes it. Brass alloys are widely applied in industry in various sectors and for different purposes. Brass was first obtained in England in the late XVIII century, by melting copper with zinc metal. For a long time, after the invention of brass in Europe, brass was used as the fraudsters fake gold.
Now some stores fixtures can be heard statements sellers, chandeliers made of bronze, which, of course, is a deceit on the part of sellers, or ignorance of the specifics of the production and manufacture of ceiling lighting suspensions. Very often a chandelier can be seen on the labels inscription «Brass» or «Bronce». These lamps represent the buyer as bronze, which is not so. The word «Brass» means the same thing as the word «Bronce» in Spanish – brass. Bronze chandeliers can now be found only in antique shops and on auction. Occasionally, these chandeliers are made to order, and their price is comparable to the price of a bronze statue, executed by an individual project.
Innovations do not appear out of nowhere and try to use the old forms and copy the previously used materials. Man is inherently conservative who adheres to the traditions and lifestyles of their ancestors. The main reason for saving was originally invented structures is their rationality and feasibility. Attempts to buy the bronze chandelier caused inertia of human consciousness, delusions, in which a man entered the negligent sellers, and commitment of people to stereotypes.